Pearl Harbor National Memorial

Attack on Pearl Harbor

The historic attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the maritime base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, right before 8:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The strike led to the United state of America’s formal entry right into WW2 the following day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation, Operation AI, and Operation Z during its preparation. Japan collaborated the strike as a preventive action to maintain the USA Pacific Fleet from interfering with its organized military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas encroachment of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Throughout the 7 hour attack, there were collaborated Japanese coordinated strikes on the U.S. held Philippines, Guam, as well as Wake Island along with the British Power in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.

The attack began at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft (incorporating airplane fighters and strategic dive bombers, together with torpedo bombers) in 2 waves. The attacks on Pearl Harbor were commenced from six aircraft carriers. Of the 8 U.S. Navy battleships on the morning of December 7th, 1941, all were damaged and the attack even sank four United States Navy Battleships. All but USS Arizona were later brought up, and 6 were returned to full service plus went on to fight in the war. The Japanese forces fully damaged and sank 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and a single minelayer. A total amount of 188 U.S. aircraft were wiped out, approximately 2,403 Americans were killed along with 1,178 others injured. However, important base installations such as the main power station, dry dock, shipyard, maintenance, fuel/gas sources and the torpedo storage area facilities, including the submarine piers as well as head offices structure (additionally house of the intelligence area) were not struck. Japanese losses were light compared to the United States Navy casualties; 29 aircraft, five midget submarines destroyed, and approximentatly 64 servicemen killed. Kazuo Sakamaki, the commander of one of the main submarines, was apprehended and detained.